ARJUN and KRISHNA


DEFINITION OF RENUNCIATION AND SACRIFICE
Lord Krishna said: The sages define renunciation as
abstaining from all work for personal profit. The wise
define sacrifice as the sacrifice of, and the freedom
from, the selfish attachment to the fruits of all
work. (See also 5.01, 5.05, and 6.01) (18.02)

Some philosophers say that all work is full of faults
and should be given up, while others say that acts of
sacrifice, charity, and austerity should not be
abandoned. (18.03)

O Arjuna, listen to My conclusion about sacrifice.
Sacrifice is said to be of three types. (18.04)

Acts of service, charity, and austerity should not be
abandoned, but should be performed, because service,
charity, and austerity are the purifiers of the wise.
(18.05)

Even these obligatory works should be performed
without attachment to the fruits. This is My definite
supreme advice, O Arjuna. (18.06)


THREE TYPES OF SACRIFICE

Giving up one's duty is not proper. The abandonment of
obligatory work is due to delusion, and is declared to
be in the mode of ignorance.(Tamasic) (18.07)

One who abandons duty merely because it is difficult,
or because of fear of bodily trouble, does not get the
benefits of sacrifice by performing such a sacrifice
in the mode of passion.(Rajasic) (18.08)

Obligatory work performed as duty, renouncing selfish
attachment to the fruit, is alone regarded to be
sacrifice in the mode of goodness, O Arjuna.(Satawic)
(18.09)

The one who neither hates a disagreeable work, nor is
attached to an agreeable work, is considered a
renunciant (Tyagi), imbued with the mode of goodness,
intelligent, and free from all doubts about the
Supreme Being. (18.10)

Human beings cannot completely abstain from work.
Therefore, the one who completely renounces the
selfish attachment to the fruits of all works is
considered a renunciant. (18.11)

The threefold fruit of works — desirable, undesirable,
and mixed ¾ accrues after death to the one who is not
a renunciant (Tyagi), but never to a Tyagi. (18.12)

FIVE CAUSES OF ANY ACTION

Learn from Me, O Arjuna, the five causes, as described
in the Sankhya doctrine, for the accomplishment of all
actions. They are: The physical body, the seat of
Karma; the modes of material Nature, the doer; the
eleven organs of perception and action, the
instruments; various bioimpulses; and the fifth is the
presiding deities of the eleven organs. (18.13-14)

Whatever action, whether right or wrong, one performs
by thought, word, and deed; these are its five causes.
(18.15)

Therefore, the ignorant one who considers one’s body
or the soul as the sole agent due to imperfect
knowledge does not understand. (18.16)

The one who is free from the notion of doership, and
whose intellect is not polluted by the desire to reap
the fruit; even after slaying these people, he or she
neither slays nor is bound by the act of killing.
(18.17)

The subject, the object, and the knowledge of the
object are the threefold driving force to an action.
The eleven organs; the act, and the agent or the modes
of material Nature are the three components of action.
(18.18)

THREE TYPES OF KNOWLEDGE

Self-knowledge, action), and agent are said to be of
three types according to Sankhya doctrine. Hear duly
about these also. (18.19)

The knowledge by which one sees a single immutable
Reality in all beings as undivided in the divided;
such knowledge is in the mode of goodness.(Satawic)
(See also 11.13, and 13.16) (18.20)

The knowledge by which one sees different realities of
various types among all beings as separate from one
another; consider that knowledge to be in the mode of
passion.(Rajasic) (18.21)

The irrational, baseless, and worthless knowledge by
which one clings to one single effect (such as the
body) as if it is everything; such knowledge is
declared to be in the mode of darkness of
ignorance.(Tamasic) (18.22)

THREE TYPES OF ACTION

The obligatory duty performed without likes and
dislikes, and without selfish motives and attachment
to enjoy the fruit, is said to be in the mode of
goodness.(Satwic) (18.23)

Action performed with ego, with selfish motives, and
with too much effort; is declared to be in the mode of
passion.(Rajasic) (18.24)

Action that is undertaken because of delusion;
disregarding consequences, loss, injury to others, as
well as one’s own ability is said to be in the mode of
ignorance.(Tamasic) (18.25)

THREE TYPES OF AGENT

The agent who is free from attachment, is
non-egotistic, endowed with resolve and enthusiasm,
and unperturbed in success or failure is called
good.(Satawic) (18.26)

The agent who is impassioned, attached to the fruits
of their work, greedy, violent, impure, and is
affected by joy and sorrow is called
passionate.(Rajasic) (18.27)

The undisciplined, vulgar, stubborn, wicked,
malicious, lazy, depressed, and procrastinating agent
is called ignorant.(Tamasic) (18.28)

THREE TYPES OF INTELLECT

Now hear the threefold division of intellect and
resolve, based on modes of material Nature, as
explained by Me fully and separately, O Arjuna.
(18.29)

O Arjuna, the intellect by which one understands the
path of work and the path of renunciation, right and
wrong action, fear and fearlessness, bondage and
liberation, that intellect is in the mode of goodness.
(Satawic)(18.30)

The intellect by which one cannot distinguish between
righteousness (Dharma) and unrighteousness (Adharma),
and right and wrong action; that intellect is in the
mode of passion, O Arjuna.(Rajasic) (18.31)

The intellect ¾ when covered by ignorance ¾ accepts
unrighteousness (Adharma) as righteousness (Dharma),
and thinks everything to be that which it is not, is
in the mode of ignorance, O Arjuna.(Tamasic) (18.32)

THREE TYPES OF RESOLVE, AND THE FOUR GOALS OF HUMAN
LIFE

The resolve by which one manipulates the functions of
the mind, Prana (bioimpulses), and senses for
God-realization only; that resolve is in the mode of
goodness, O Arjuna.(Satawic) (18.33)

The resolve by which a person, craving for the fruits
of work, clings to duty, accumulating wealth, and
enjoyment with great attachment; that resolve, O
Arjuna, is in the mode of passion.(Rajasic) (18.34)

The resolve by which a dull person does not give up
sleep, fear, grief, despair, and carelessness; that
resolve is in the mode of ignorance, O
Arjuna.(Tamasic) (18.35)

THREE TYPES OF PLEASURE

And now hear from Me, O Arjuna, about the threefold
pleasure. The pleasure one enjoys from spiritual
practice results in cessation of all sorrows. (18.36)

The pleasure that appears as poison in the beginning,
but is like nectar in the end, comes by the grace of
Self-knowledge, and is in the mode of
goodness.(Satwic) (18.37)

Sensual pleasures appear as nectar in the beginning,
but become poison in the end; such pleasures are in
the mode of passion.(Rajsic) (See also 5.22) (18.38)

Pleasure that confuses a person in the beginning and
in the end; which comes from sleep, laziness, and
carelessness; such pleasure is said to be in the mode
of ignorance.(Tamsic) (18.39)

There is no being, either on the earth or among the
celestial controllers in the heaven, who can remain
free from these three modes of material Nature.
(18.40)

Now it is for the learner to understnad what is
Satwic,Rajsic and Tamsic

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